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Osteoporosis of the vertebral column: epidemiology, current diagnostic methods, and treatment principles

DOI: https://doi.org/10.29296/25877305-2020-11-04
Issue: 
11
Year: 
2020

A. Yarikov(1)*, Candidate of Medical Sciences; I. Smirnov(2); S. Pavlinov(3); Professor O.
Perlmutter(2), MD; K. Lipatov(1), Candidate of Medical Sciences; S. Magomedov(2); S. Chapurin(2); A.
Sosnin(1), Candidate of Medical Sciences; Professor A. Fraerman(2), MD; S. Pardaev(4)**, Candidate of
Medical Sciences, Associate Professor (1)Volga District Medical Center, Federal Biomedical Agency, Nizhny
Novgorod; (2)City Clinical Hospital Thirty-Nine, Nizhny Novgorod; (3)Mirt (Myrtle) Medical Center, Kostroma;
(4)Samarkand Branch of the Republican Specialized Scientific and Practical Medical Center of Traumatology
and Orthopedics, Samarkand, Uzbekistan

The data of epidemiological studies suggest that there is an increase in the number of patients with osteoporosis. This disease affects about 14 million people and another 20 million ones have decreased bone mineral density that corresponds to osteopenia. Osteoporosis occupies the fourth place in prevalence (just after cardiovascular diseases, cancer, and diabetes mellitus). Each year in the United States, there are >1.5 million osteoporotic fractures, including 700,000 vertebral body fractures. The social significance of osteoporosis is determined by its consequences (fractures of the vertebral bodies and peripheral skeleton bones), leading to large material treatment costs, disability, and death. The article describes in detail current diagnostic techniques in osteoporosis: spondylography, dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry, X-ray computed tomography, ultrasound densitometry, and magnetic resonance imaging. It details the advantages and disadvantages of each technique, as well as methods for the treatment and prevention of osteoporosis.

Keywords: 
osteoporosis
densitometry
vertebral fracture
osteoporotic fracture
bone mineral density



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