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Lung dysplasia in preterm newborn infants: clinical and diagnostic features in the early neonatal period (a clinical case)

DOI: https://doi.org/10.29296/25877305-2023-01-08

O. Zavyalov(1, 3); Professor I. Ignatko(1, 2), Corresponding Member of the Russian Academy of Sciences, MD; Professor I. Pasechnik(3), MD; Professor B. Babaev(4), MD; V. Marenkov(1), V. Titov(1), O. Antropova(1), M. Lebedeva(1), Candidate of Medical Sciences(1), E. Novikov(5), Candidate of Medical Sciences
1-S.S. Yudin City Clinical Hospital, Moscow
2-I.M. Sechenov First Moscow State Medical University (Sechenov University), Ministry of Health of Russia
3-Central State Medical Academy, Presidential Administration of Russia, Moscow
4-Russian Medical Academy of Continuing Professional Education, Ministry
of Health of Russia, Moscow
5-“MedinCenter” Branch, Main Production and Commercial Directorate for Services to the Diplomatic Corps, Ministry of Foreign Affairs, Moscow

The paper presents modern ideas about the clinical and diagnostic features of lung dysplasia in preterm babies in the early neonatal period. Lung dysplasia is shown to be a common and antenatally diagnosed congenital malformation of the respiratory system. The semiotics of lung dysplasia and respiratory distress syndrome in the newborn is compared. The authors consider the characteristics of the main respiratory patterns of traditional and high-frequency oscillatory ventilation, which are often used for respiratory support for premature babies in the neonatal intensive care unit. They discuss the pathogenetic role of hemodynamically significant patent ductus arteriosus in premature babies with respiratory failure. It is emphasized that for the timely detection of chromosomal abnormalities and congenital malformations in a fetus, it is necessary for pregnant and parturient women to regularly attend antenatal care clinics and to undergo prenatal screening. The paper describes a clinical case that considers the capabilities of diagnostic search and the parameters of monitoring the vital functions of a premature baby in the early neonatal period during intensive care in the neonatal intensive care unit.

congenital malformation
lung dysplasia
neonatal intensive care unit
early neonatal period
respiratory support
neonatal respiratory distress syndrome.

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