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Pathogenesis of neonatal respiratory distress syndrome from the standpoint of the features of the embryogenesis of the respiratory system

DOI: https://doi.org/10.29296/25877305-2022-01-03
Issue: 
1
Year: 
2022

O. Zavyalov(1, 2); Professor I. Pasechnik(1), MD; Professor I. Ignatko(2, 4), Corresponding
Member of the Academy of Medical Sciences, MD; Professor B. Babaev(3), MD; A. Dementyev(2, 3), Candidate of
Medical Sciences; Zh. Chabaidze(3), Candidate of Medical Sciences (1)Central State Medical Academy,
Presidential Administration of Russia, Moscow (2)S.S. Yudin City Clinical Hospital, Moscow (3)Russian
Medical Academy of Continuing Professional Education, Ministry of Health of Russia, Moscow (4)I.M. Sechenov
First Moscow State Medical University (Sechenov University), Ministry of Health of Russia

The paper is devoted to the problems of the pathogenesis of neonatal respiratory distress syndrome (RDS), by taking into account the peculiarities of embryonic development of the lungs, the production and maturation of surfactant, and the development of respiratory organs. It elucidates the characteristics and clinical role of surfactant in perinatal lung adaptation and the development of RDS in preterm infants. The authors discuss the epidemiological aspects of preterm labor, the features of regulation of respiratory organs and the surfactant system, anatomical and morphofunctional immaturity of the lungs, fetal breathing movements, and the mechanism of the first breath. The paper considers the concept of aerogematic histion, fetal lung function, and criteria for neonatal assessment of the clinical presentation of respiratory failure in premature babies in the early neonatal period.

Keywords: 
perinatology
aerogematic histion
respiratory failure
premature neonates
lung development
early neonatal period
respiratory distress syndrome
spontaneous breathing
surfactant
embryogenesis of respiratory organs



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