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Aspergillus species and chronic lung diseases

DOI: https://doi.org/10.29296/25877305-2020-11-03
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Ya. Kozlova, Candidate of Medical Sciences, Associate Professor; V. Kuznetsov; Professor N.
Klimko, MD North-Western State Medical University named after I.I. Mechnikov, Saint Petersburg

Among microscopic fungi that can infect the respiratory tract, Aspergillus spp. plays a leading role. Currently, chronic lung diseases are recognized as an important risk factor for various types of aspergillosis. In patients with asthma due to an allergic reaction to the Aspergillus spp. antigen severe asthma with fungal sensitization (SAFS) or allergic bronchopulmonary aspergillosis (ABPA) may develop. Long colonization of the lower respiratory tract by mold fungi in patients with chronic pulmonary cavities (tuberculosis, cystic fibrosis, bronchiectasis) can lead to the development of chronic pulmonary aspergillosis (CPA). In addition, in patients with COPD, risk factors for aspergillosis are long-term use of systemic or inhaled glucocorticosteroids in combination with repeated courses of antibacterial drugs in exacerbations of the underlying disease. Thus Aspergillus spp. they can act as both infectious agents and sources of allergens and significantly worsen the clinical course and outcomes of the underlying disease. Timely detection of Aspergillus-associated diseases in immunocompetent pulmonological patients helps to determine the optimal therapeutic tactics and prevent the development of complications.

chronic lung diseases
Aspergillus spp.
allergic bronchopulmonary aspergillosis
chronic pulmonary aspergillosis

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